The trust factor in DevOps

Let's talk about security

In recent years, containerization has become a popular way to deploy software applications. While containerization has many benefits, such as portability, scalability, and consistency, it also presents new security challenges. In this article, we will explore some of the security risks associated with containerization and discuss ways to mitigate them.

Third-party images

One of the biggest security risks associated with containerization is the use of third-party images. Many developers and system administrators rely on pre-built images from public registries, such as Docker Hub or, to save time and effort. While this can be a convenient way to get started with containerization, it can also introduce significant security risks.

Third-party images may contain vulnerabilities or malware that can compromise the security of your system. For example, an attacker could create a malicious image that includes a backdoor, a rootkit, or a cryptocurrency miner. If you use this image in your environment, you could be exposing your system to serious security threats.

To mitigate this risk, you should always use trusted images from reputable sources. Ideally, you should build your own images from source code to ensure that you know exactly what is included in the image. If you must use third-party images, make sure you verify their integrity and scan them for vulnerabilities and malware before deploying them.

Container escape

Another security risk associated with containerization is container escape. Container escape occurs when an attacker is able to break out of a container and gain access to the host system. This can be particularly dangerous because containers are often used to isolate applications and services from each other and from the host system.

Container escape can occur through various channels, such as kernel vulnerabilities, misconfigured container runtime settings, or malicious software running inside the container. Once an attacker has escaped a container, they can potentially access other containers and even the host system.

To mitigate this risk, you should always keep your container runtime up-to-date with the latest security patches and best practices. You should also configure your container runtime to enforce strong isolation and sandboxing policies. Additionally, you should monitor your container environment for suspicious activities and consider using security tools such as intrusion detection and prevention systems.

Secret management

One of the unique challenges of containerization is secret management. Secrets, such as passwords, API keys, and certificates, are often required by applications and services running inside containers. However, storing and managing secrets in a container environment can be difficult and error-prone.

If secrets are not properly managed, they can be exposed to unauthorized users or applications, potentially compromising the security of your system. For example, if a password is hardcoded inside a container image, anyone who has access to the image can obtain the password and use it to access sensitive data.

To mitigate this risk, you should adopt a secure secret management strategy that is designed for container environments. This may include using tools such as Kubernetes Secrets or HashiCorp Vault, which provide centralized and encrypted storage for secrets. You should also avoid hardcoding secrets inside container images and use environment variables or configuration files instead.


Containerization has revolutionized the way we deploy and manage software applications. However, it also presents new security challenges that must be addressed to ensure the integrity and confidentiality of our systems. By using trusted images, enforcing strong isolation, and adopting secure secret management strategies, we can mitigate many of the risks associated with containerization and build secure and resilient container environments.

Mateusz Kozak

Mateusz Kozak

Warsaw, Poland